The 1490 NewsBlog

powered by NewsRadio 1490 WESB

brought to you, in part, by

Friday, August 9, 2013

NYS Police Hoping to Connect with Past

New York State Police are hoping Erie County Fair-goers can help them connect with their past.

As they are looking at revisions to the museum at the State Police Academy in Albany, troopers are inviting people to bring New York State Police memorabilia to their display area at the fair. Everything will be scanned into a computer file.

Also, as the 100th anniversary of the New York State Police approaches, troopers are reminding retired members, their family and friends to stop in and tell tales of their days “on the job.” These stories may be used as part of an anniversary celebration.

During the fair troopers will be participating in canine and rapelling demonstrations.

Photo of 2012 NYS Police rapelling demonstration by Anne Holliday

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Flooding Hits Some Routes to Watkins Glen

If you’re headed to Watkins Glen this weekend, don’t be surprised if you run into detours because of flooding on popular routes to the raceway.

Small stream flooding closed Route 14 near the Horseheads State Police barracks at around noon today. Northbound traffic was being diverted onto Wygant Road in Horseheads. The state Route 414 bridge over Buck Hollow Creek in Hornby was closed late Thursday night after the creek washed over the bridge and left behind debris. The state Department of Transportation put up signs on Interstate 86 advising motorists who would normally take Route 414 to the track to County Road 16 instead.

A flash flood watch remains in effect until 7 o’clock tonight for Broome, Chemung, Chenango, Cortland, Schuyler, Steuben, Tioga and Tompkins counties.

The Zippo 200 is tomorrow.

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Tioga Asst. Fire Chief Narrowly Escapes Injury

A Tioga, PA, assistant fire chief narrowly escaped injury when an explosive doused in gasoline went off only a few feet away from him.

Police say a man lit a ¼ stick of an explosive on Main Street in the borough of Tioga at about 9:30 last night and waited for it to go off. When it didn’t explode, he dumped gasoline on it, but it still didn’t go off so he walked away. At some point a neighbor who watched him dumped the gasoline called the fire department because they thought 28-year-old Robert Rooks III had set a nearby utility pole on fire.

When assistant chief Duane Marbaker got out of his vehicle the explosive finally exploded. Right after that, Rooks came back and was confronted by fire department personnel, who told him he needed to stick around because the police had been called. He got agitated while waiting, told a member of the fire police he was going to beat him up, and then ran away again, according to a news release.

Trooper Daniel Doney found Rooks a short time later walking “right down the middle of a very dark street.” Doney says it was obvious that Rooks was highly intoxicated and that he was also showing signs of being under the influence of some kind of controlled substance.

Doney says Rooks later told him he had taken five Xanax pills and drank at least a six-pack of beer.

Rooks is facing a number of charges, including recklessly endangering another person. He’s free on $2,000 unsecured bail.

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Buchheit to Appear in Pittsburgh Musical

PITTSBURGH – Bradford resident Marissa Buchheit has been cast in the Pittsburgh premiere of the Tony Award-winning blockbuster musical In the Heights.

Hailed by the New York Times as "the hottest, most street savvy production in years" the show is being produced by Carrnivale Theatrics in conjunction with Front Porch Theatricals at the New Hazlett Theater from August 23 through September 1.

This high-energy show features a contemporary Latin-flavored score and Tony-winning hip-hop dance moves. It takes place in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan, where a young store owner watches the joys and heartbreaks of his tight-knit community as they pass through his bodega.

In the Heights was nominated for 13 Tonys in 2008 and won four Tony Awards including Best Musical, Best Original Score,Best Choreography and Best Orchestrations.

Buchheit, who will be playing the role of Carla, joins a diverse cast of 24 other performers from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, New York, Florida, Ohio, Indiana and Pennsylvania.

Among the principals is Tony Chiroldes, who will revive his role of Kevin Rosario. He played the part of Kevin and PiraguaGuy on Broadway.

The show was cast following auditions in both Pittsburgh and New York.

Currently an acting major in Point Park University’s Conservatory of Performing Arts, Buchheit is a graduate of Bradford Area High School and performed in numerous musicals and shows during her school years including the Bradford Little Theater production of Disney’s High School Musical and was a featured soloist and choreographer for Kiwanis Kapers.

Buchheit also has appeared as Maya in Among the Pyramid Builders at the Gray Box Theater.

She is the daughter of Pete and Karen Buchheit of Bradford.

Director and co-founder of Carrnivale Theatricals Justin Fortunato describes the production of In the Heights as “something that fits perfectly with the types of productions we put on - pulling mostly from the incredible actors in Pittsburgh and putting on a show that promotes community as much as we do.”

This production marks the second collaboration between Carrnivale Theatrics and Front Porch Theatricals following last summer’s financial and box office success with Next to Normal.

“We’re very excited to be putting on a second show together,” co-producer Leon S. Zionts said.

“In the Heights is larger and grander than anything we’ve done before, but in working with such great acting andartistic/production talent, we know we can take last year’s successes and build on them,” Zionts added.

Information on tickets is available at or on Facebook at

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

95-Year-Old Portville Veteran Honored

Recognizing his outstanding record of military service during World War II and his contributions to the liberation of France in 1944-45, United States Army Air Forces Sergeant Herman E. White of Portville has received the honor of appointment to France’s National Order of the Legion of Honor.

At a reception held this afternoon in Bradford, Pennsylvania, Senator Catharine Young (R,C,I - Olean) presented Sergeant White with the official medal conferred upon honorees inducted into the Legion of Honor.

The National Order of the Legion of Honor is the highest decoration in France. Appointment to the Order is awarded by the President of France for excellent civil or military conduct, as confirmed after official investigation by the French government. Not limited to French citizens alone, appointment may also be conferred upon American World War II veterans who fought to liberate France from the occupation of Nazi Germany.

“Herman White put his life on hold and answered the call to serve our country in a truly selfless way. He bravely fought in Africa and Europe to defeat fascism and bring freedom to millions. This prestigious award demonstrates that his contributions to victory in World War II have earned him the gratitude of not just Americans, but of French citizens as well,” said Senator Young.

“I know my dad is very appreciative of this honor, and it means a lot to him. It has been a long time in coming, and he is very proud to have finally received this award,” said Michael White, Herman’s son.

Herman White was born on April 1, 1918, in Ceres, New York, where he grew up and attended school, before moving on to Bolivar in the eighth grade.

While working as a mechanic and driller in the oil fields of Pennsylvania’s Northern Tier, White was drafted into the United States Army on June 1, 1942.

Following induction at Fort Niagara and initial training, Sergeant White was assigned to prepare munitions for arming and loading with the newly formed 444th Bomb Squadron. The 444th, which was equipped with the Martin B-26 Marauder, would be one of the first Army Air Force units to enter combat in Europe.

When Sergeant White joined the 444th, the unit was stationed at MacDill Field, Florida, as part of the Third Air Force. The unit was assembling air and ground crews preparing for wartime service.

Sergeant White deployed with his unit to England on September 27, 1942, and would spend the next 3 years supporting Allied forces in Africa, the Mediterranean, and Europe with the preparation and arming of munitions to be loaded on the Martin B-26. The 444th entered into combat operations with the 320th Bomb Group, 12th Air Force.

With the 444th Bomb Squadron’s deployment to Africa following Operation Torch landings in Algeria, Sergeant White supported the tactical bombing missions against Axis forces in North Africa until the end of the Tunisian Campaign in 1943.

The unit then participated in the invasion of Sicily and Italy, the liberation of Corsica and Sardinia, Operation Dragoon and the invasion of occupied Southern France, and the Allied ground forces’ invasion of Western Germany. After the successful defeat of Nazi Germany, the unit operated out of Bergdorf, Germany, as part of the occupying forces. The 444th Bomb Squadron was inactivated on December 8, 1945 in Germany.

For its heroic wartime service, the 444th Bomb Squadron earned two Presidential Unit Citations and the French Croix de Guerre.

Sergeant White personally earned both of the above unit decorations, the Good Conduct Medal, and the European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with eight campaign stars: Central Europe, Naples-Foggia, North Apennines, Rhineland, Rome-Arno, Sicily, Southern France, and Tunisia.

After returning to the United States, Sergeant White was discharged at Fort Dix, New Jersey on September 26, 1945, having served for three years and four months, approximately one year of which was spent in France.

Sergeant White returned to Portville, where he pursued a career as a diesel mechanic and farmer, and he and his wife Rosemary raised their son Michael.

“Sergeant White’s wartime service and the character he has demonstrated throughout his life reveals him to be a man we can all admire and aspire to emulate. This award serves as another indication of our sincere gratitude and appreciation,” said Senator Young.

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Former Teacher Sentenced

The former Galeton teacher who had sexual contact with two teenage boys has been sentenced to 5 to 23 ½ months, but not all of it in jail.

37-year-old Kimberly Smith will spend the first five months in jail and the rest will be on electronically monitored home confinement. She must also surrender her teaching certificate and is not allowed to be employed at any high school in the future.

Smith kissed two 17-year-old boys and allowed them to touch her both over and under her clothes.

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Hearing on Burglary, Assault Charges Waived

A Philadelphia-area man has waived his preliminary hearing on charges related to a break-in and assault in Bradford back in December.

36-year-old Harry Glover III of Wynnewood is accused of breaking into Forman Street apartment at around 5 a.m. on December 15 after a woman there repeatedly told him to leave, according to papers filed in District Judge Dominic Cercone's office. He then forced the door opened, punched a man and hit the woman multiple times in the forehead.

Glover is charged with burglary, simple assault and criminal mischief and is free on bail.

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Road Rage Lands Man in Jail

A man who apparently couldn’t control his road rage is facing charges in Cattaraugus County.

State troopers say on Route 242 in the Town of Machias a driver got cut off by another motorist, causing him to stop abruptly. Gene Tingue of Delevan then got out of the vehicle, approached the driver who was cut off and threatened to punch him. While being processed at the state police barracks, Tingue allegedly damaged some property there.

He was charged with menacing, disorderly conduct and criminal mischief, and sent to jail on $2,000 bail.

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Trees Toppled with Brush Hog

Even if you don’t like another guy’s trees, you can run them over with any kind of vehicle or equipment.

Well, you can, but you might find yourself facing charges like 24-year-old Tyler Chase of Jamestown.

He is accused of destroyed trees on property in Sinclairville by running them over with a brush hog.

He’s charged with criminal mischief and is scheduled to appear in Town of Charlotte Court.

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Man Allegedly Drove Go-Cart Drunk

We’ve had stories about people riding lawnmowers and bicycles drunk. We’ve even had a story about someone operating an Amish buggy while intoxicated.

Here’s a new one: A 22-year-old Sherman, New York, man is accused of driving a go-cart while intoxicated. Police pulled Arthur Reid over for driving an unregistered go-cart, and then gave him some field sobriety tests, which he failed.

After being arrested and processed, Reid was released to a sober person.

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Cops: Man Got Teen Drunk at Reception

A 22-year-old man is accused of getting a 14-year-old drunk. Police say at a wedding reception on July 27 22-year-old Cole Booth of Randolph gave the teenager several alcoholic drinks. Booth is charged with unlawfully dealing with a child and endangering the welfare of a child. He’s free on his own recognizance.

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Thursday, August 8, 2013

Update on Route 770 Crash

Several hundred gallons of fuel spilled after a truck crashed on Route 770 Wednesday morning, injuring the driver and closing the road for several hours.

When the truck crashed at just before 11:30 a.m. between Custer City and Songbird Road diesel fuel, motor oil, transmission fluid, gear lube and hydraulic oil spilled onto the road.

Emergency crews built overflow dams to contain the fluid.

The Dallas-Morris Well Services truck was being driven by 21-year-old Daniel Gerhart of Roulette. He lost control of it while negotiating a curve, and the truck went off the road, where it hit an embankment and some trees.

Gerhart was flown to ECMC in Buffalo as a precaution, and was released a few hours later. Dallas-Morris says DEP is satisfied with the cleanup, but will continue monitoring the site.

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Jury: Thomas Smith Guilty of Carjacking

A jury has found an Emporium man guilty of carjacking a bank employee at gunpoint last August.

49-year-old Thomas Smith was also found guilty of possession of a firearm during a crime of violence and possession of a stolen firearm.

In the incident that happened a year ago today Smith asked Kimberlea Whiting for a ride, claiming he had car trouble. He then pulled a gun on her and told her it was going to be the worst day of her life. She managed to escape from the car. Smith then ran away, prompting a 26-day manhunt.

Sentencing is tentatively scheduled for November 15.

Read more here

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Wednesday, August 7, 2013

Two Rehabilitated Bald Eagles Released

Venango County Pennsylvania Game Commission officials on Aug. 2 released two rehabilitated bald eagles in conjunction with individuals from Skye’s Spirit Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Harrisville, Pa.

On Jan. 9, a downed, mature bald eagle was reported by John Struthers off Turner Station Road in Coolspring Township, Mercer County. Deputy Wildlife Conservation Officers Terry McClelland and Tom Jones, along with Mr. Struthers, captured the bird and transported it to Skye’s Spirit Rehabilitation Center in Harrisville.

The second bird, located on Airport Road, Venango County, was a 4-year-old bald eagle. Carol Wilson noticed the bird as she was driving on March 28. The impaired bird took flight, but ended up suspended upside down in a tree. Wildlife Conservation Officers Ronda Bimber and Steve Ace, along with Maryjane Angelo from Skye’s Spirit Wildlife Rehabilitation Center, retrieved the bird and transported it to Skye’s Spirit for evaluation and subsequent rehabilitation.

Rehabilitation took many months as the eagles needed to regain strength prior to their release.

“Skye’s Spirit is one of the few wildlife rehabilitation centers that is equipped and trained to handle bald eagles. We have worked with them on numerous occasions, and they have provided a great service in returning these majestic birds back to the wild” said Keith Harbaugh, Game Commission Regional Director.

Harbaugh noted that Skye’s Spirit Wildlife Rehabilitation Center,, as well as other Pennsylvania licensed wildlife rehabilitation facilities, do their work to benefit Pennsylvania’s wildlife without any direct funding from taxpayers.

Both birds were successfully released at the site of their capture.

Pictured in Venango County, Robert Angelo & Wildlife Conservation Officer Ronda Bimber.
Game Commission photo

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Pitt-Bradford Named one of the
'Best Colleges in the Northeast'

For the 10th consecutive year, the University of Pittsburgh at Bradford has been recognized as one of the best colleges in the Northeast by The Princeton Review.

“The selection as one of the best colleges in the Northeast for a 10th consecutive year, just as we’re closing in on our 50th anniversary as a regional college of the University of Pittsburgh, underscores how far we’ve come and how much we’ve accomplished over the years,” said Dr. Livingston Alexander, Pitt-Bradford president. “This recognition is significant because, in selecting institutions for its ‘Best Colleges’ list, it focuses on input from students. The comments from students demonstrate how much they value the academically challenging and personalized environment we create for them at Pitt-Bradford.”

The Princeton Review selected Pitt-Bradford as one of 226 institutions in its “Best in the Northeast” section of its website feature “2014 Best Colleges: Region by Region.”

Besides Pennsylvania, the colleges and universities chosen for the list are located in 10 states: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island and Vermont, and the District of Columbia.

Robert Franek, Princeton Review's senior vice president and publisher, said, “We chose these as our ‘regional best’ colleges mainly for their excellent academic programs. From several hundred schools in each region, we winnowed our list based on institutional data we collected directly from the schools, our visits to schools over the years, and the opinions of our staff, plus college counselors and advisors whose recommendations we invite. We also take into account what students at the schools reported to us.”

Students rated their own schools on several issues -- from the accessibility of their professors to quality of the campus food.

When surveyed, Pitt-Bradford students made many positive comments about the university’s professors and academic programs. Students said the small class sizes were the university’s major strength and that the professors are willing to help and are “extremely well versed in their specific fields of study.”

Students also responded positively about the student body, which they said was friendly, welcoming and accepting of all types. “At Pitt-Bradford you are a person with a name, a face, and people are going to know you; you’re not a number,” one student said. Another student added, “I’ve learned that all you really have to do is introduce yourself and find something in common with them.”

Pitt-Bradford’s personalized campus was cited in another national accolade in January of this year when the college research website named it one of the 10 best regional campuses in the United States.

“Professors are considered students’ friends, going above and beyond to facilitate learning by extending office hours, giving out their private cell phone numbers and more,” according to the article.

Additionally, last year, The Princeton Review named Pitt-Bradford a Best Value College, one of only eight Pennsylvania colleges named to the list that year

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Accused Drunk Driver Hits Mail Box

An accused drunk driver hit a culvert and a mailbox after his car left the road early Sunday morning in the Town of New Albion.

Sheriff’s deputies say 21-year-old Steven Borkowski of Little Valley was on Route 353 at about 5:30 a.m. when he crashed, heavily damaging his vehicle. He did leave the scene, though, but was picked up a short time later and charged with DWI and leaving the scene of a property damage accident.

He’ll appear in Town of New Albion Court at a later date.

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Port Man Allegedly Forged Prescription

A Port Allegany man is accused of forging a prescription to get drugs from Ott & McHenry Pharmacy last month.

25-year-old Colt Ayers passed an altered prescription to get Subutex tablets and later lied to city police, telling them he got the prescription from another person, according to papers filed in District Judge Dominic Cercone's office. He also had a prescription that was taken from an encrypted, numbered prescription pad of Dr. Martin Jacobs.

Ayers was sent to jail on $25,000 bail.

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Man Guilty of Fentanyl Patch Theft

One of the Bradford men charged for breaking into a woman’s home and stealing a Fentanyl patch off her arm has been found guilty.

40-year-old Richard Cavallero II was charged with conspiracy to commit robbery, burglary, criminal trespass and simple assault, as well as solicitation of robbery.

In July of last year Cavallero and 28-year-old Tyler Sherman went to the woman’s home, knocked on the door and said they were “Bradford Police.” Court records say the woman was suspicious so she went to the door to peek out and see who was outside, when Sherman broke the door open, pushed his way in, grabbed the woman, put a knife to her throat and screamed at her, telling her to hand over her prescription for morphine patches. The woman said she didn’t have a prescription, and only had the patch on her arm. Sherman ripped the patch from her arm, took her phone and ran away.

No sentencing date has been set yet for Cavallero. Sherman pleaded guilty to robbery and is serving 5 to 10 years in state prison.

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Fight at Fair Brings Charges

At about 11:30 Saturday night at the Cattaraugus County Fair, 23-year-old Jeremy Green of Cattaraugus was arrested for disorderly conduct after getting into a fight with the amusement game staff.

Sheriff’s deputies say he used extremely vulgar language in their presence, as well as the presence of several small children.

Green is scheduled to appear in Village of Little Valley Court.

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Little Valley Man Arrested -- Again

First he attempted to strangle someone, then he was allegedly found growing marijuana. Now a Little Valley man is accused of assaulting another man in his home, and damaging the man’s vehicle.

28-year-old Brian Blasdell is charged with assault and criminal mischief in connection to the third alleged incident, which happened at 10:30 Thursday night in Little Valley. He was sent to jail in lieu of $6,000 bail.

He’s scheduled for sentencing on August 26 for attempting to strangle another person late last year. Police say they found marijuana growing in Blasdell’s home when they responded to that call. Blasdell pleaded not guilty to that charge and the case has been adjourned for motions.

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Four Arrested on Drug Charges

Four people were arrested in Salamanca after an investigation by the Southern Tier Regional Drug Task Force.

Task force agents executed a search warrant at 7:20 last night at a home on Newton Farm Road. 27-year-old Christine White, 32-year-old Samuel McKenney and 24-year-old Carmen Williams, all of Salamanca, were each charged with criminal possession of a controlled substance and criminal use of drug paraphernalia. 21-year-old Ricky “Skipper” Perry of Lackawanna is charged with criminal possession of a controlled substance.

Police say more charges are pending the completion of the investigation.

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Truck Crash Closes Part of Route 770

UPDATE: The incident commander at the scene says he has no idea when the road will re-open.

As we've been telling you on Facebook and Twitter:

Route 770 between Route 219 in Custer City and Songbird Road has been closed since about 11:30 this morning when a truck crashed and rolled over.

The driver was taken by Mercy Flight to an out-of-town hospital.

Some liquid did spill out of the truck. It’s being contained by dams and sand brought in by PennDOT.

DEP and the McKean County Emergency Management Agency have been called.

At one point 770 was closed all the way to Route 59, but that has been re-opened to all traffic except heavy trucks.

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Tuesday, August 6, 2013

Trial Date Set for Murder Suspects

A trial date has been scheduled for the four men charged in the deaths of a Town of Carroll couple back in April.

34-year-old Davide Coggins and 21-year-old Joshua McCormick, both of Elmira, are each charged with two counts of first-degree murder in the deaths of Gordon and Joyce Skinner, whose bodies were discovered by first responders after their house had been set on fire.

18-year-old Ricky Knickerbocker and 18-year-old Steven Todd, also of Elmira, are charged with second-degree murder. All four men are also charged with burglary and arson.

The trial is scheduled for March 11.

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947

Two from Dancing with the Stars to
Sign Autographs at Seneca Allegany Events Center

SALAMANCA, N.Y. – Cheryl Burke and Val Chmerkovskiy, two of the most dynamic professional dancers on the ABC hit TV show “Dancing with the Stars,” waltz into southwestern New York this August to meet adoring fans and sign autographs. The fun takes place at Seneca Allegany Casino & Hotel from 3 to 4:30 p.m. on Saturday, August 10.

The autograph session takes place in the Pre-Function Area outside Seneca Allegany Events Center, located on the east end of the casino property near Thunder Mountain Buffet and the Bus Lobby. The event is free, but fans are encouraged to arrive early to gain a closer spot in line.

“Dancing with the Stars” first premiered in the United States in 2005 and has since become one of ABC’s most popular shows. Each season, a cast of celebrities from a variety of careers – acting, singing, sports and more – are paired with professional dancers and perform choreographed dance routines. A panel of judges critique and score the performances, and TV viewers vote each week for their favorite stars to advance to the next round of competition. The show’s 16th season recently wrapped up this past May, and a new season is slated to begin in September.

Cheryl Burke has more than 20 years of dancing experience and recently became the first professional dancer to appear in the finals six times on “Dancing with the Stars.” She earned two Prime Time Emmy Award nominations for Outstanding Choreography and also regularly appears on Maxim magazine’s Hot 100 List.

Valentin “Val” Chmerkovskiy has been a U.S. National Dance Champion 14 times in a just 15 years of professional dancing. He is a two-time world champion and a co-owner of Dance With Me Studios, considered to be one of the nation’s leading social dance studios with locations in New York, New Jersey and Connecticut. In the past two seasons of “Dancing with the Stars,” he and his celebrity partner have placed third and second overall in the competition.

The upcoming visit by Burke and Chmerkovskiy is just one of many fun activities slated for August at Seneca Allegany Casino & Hotel. On Friday, August 16, actor and comedian Howie Mandel performs an evening of stand-up comedy at 7 p.m. inside Seneca Allegany Events Center. Great seats are still available and start at just $35.

Ongoing promotions in August include Drive to Win This Summer Part II with a grand-prize giveaway of a 2013 Dodge Ram 1500®, Apple-a-Day Giveaway with opportunities to win an Apple® MacBook Pro, and $70,000 Hot Summer Nights with weekly drawings for cash and Free Slot Play.

Finally, to close out the month, classic rock band Huey Lewis and the News perform at Seneca Allegany Events Center as part of a summer tour to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the No. 1 album “Sports.” The show takes place at 7 p.m. on Saturday, August 31. Limited tickets remain and start at $35.

The news leader of the Twin Tiers ... since 1947